An infinitive is the verb form that has “to” at the beginning. Compare the verbals in these two sentences: Whereas the participle crying modifies the subject in the first sentence, the gerund crying is the subject of the second sentence. So how do you know when to use an infinitive and when to use a gerund? Prepositions can follow any word, be it a noun, a pronoun, a verb or an adjective. One easy way to do this is by learning with FluentU videos—which include movie trailers, music videos, news and other types of fun real-world videos. (Download). How else do you know if an adjective should be followed by an infinitive? The following lists of verbs followed by other verbs will help you practice using gerunds and infinitives within simple sentences. She edits lesson plans, creates new materials, and writes weekly blog posts for ESL-Library and Sprout English. You could say, “She is afraid to fly,” but in this sentence, the preposition “of” is gone. (Past) participle: Implied in this sentence is the verbal phrase. Verbals include infinitives, gerunds (also known as -ing forms), and participles (also known as -ing forms and -en forms). Try to complete these sentences using the verb “study.” Ready? (See all the gerund and infinitive exercises here) Here's my video on the subject: We use gerunds (verb + ing): After certain verbs - I enjoy singing; After prepositions - I drank a cup of coffee before leaving; As the subject or object of a sentence - Swimming is good exercise; We use 'to' + infinitive: After certain verbs - We decided to leave It depends on the verb, and there isn’t an easy rule for this case. It depends on the verb, and there isn’t an easy rule for this case. You can use either a gerund or an infinitive after “like.” Now let’s try “enjoy.” We can say, “I enjoy running.” But we cannot say, “I enjoy to run.” Why? I suggested … (studying) I’ll read the first part of the sentence and you finish it. Maybe all you want to do is to read comic books. Most students find the endless list of verbs to memorize daunting, to say the least! The past participles of all regular verbs end in -ed. Tanya is a freelance editor and writer with an extensive background as an ESL teacher. This rule is useful enough to understand the usage of infinitives! When you need an action as a subject, use a gerund. Practicing is how you become more fluent. It takes years of practice and familiarity with the English language. She is thinking about trying martial arts. Making friends has become more difficult since I moved to a new city. It is not a gerund. Both gerunds and infinitives can be nouns, which means they can do just about anything that a noun can do. Our five simple rules are sure to help! Irregular verbs, however, have various past participle endings—for instance, thrown, ridden, built, and gone. Gerund: The verbal breaking serves as a noun.It is also the object of the preposition of. Maybe you are learning to draw. It is necessary to speak English to work in a hotel. In those two quotes, the infinitives “to be” and “to mourn” are used as the sentence subjects. It is important to practice. Contoh: Gerund: Studying English is fun. Gerunds and Infinitives Exercises . A gerund is the –ing form of a verb that functions the same as a noun. Playing video games? Students can see gerunds and infinitives in context and practice through a variety of tasks, including a short reading, discussion questions, a writing activity, and two grammar exercises. Here are a few examples of verbs that need to be followed by an infinitive: There are lots of verbs that require an infinitive after. You can only use a gerund after the verb “suggest.”, Let’s take the word “like.” You can say “I like" running” or “I like to run.” Both sentences have the same meaning. They are poetic, aren’t they? Native speakers do not think about the difference. Sometimes you have to choose between the two, because using one may be completely wrong. In the examples below, the prepositions are underlined, followed by the gerunds in bold. It’s the verbs that precede (come before) the object! English learners have difficulty with gerunds and infinitives. Infinitive: To travel to Mars would take months. A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective to modify nouns and pronouns, as in this example: Crying is a present participle, formed by adding -ing to the present form of the verb (cry). Notice how the underlined objects are all followed by infinitives. Gerund: In this sentence, the words singing and laughing function as nouns, making them gerunds. Gerunds: Special Verbs That Are Also Nouns, Understanding the Types of Verbs in English Grammar, An Introduction to Present Participles and Gerunds, Understanding Present and Past Participles, 100 Key Terms Used in the Study of Grammar, Your Guide to Understanding the Present Participle, Definition and Examples of Infinitive Verbs, Definition and Examples of -ing Forms in Grammar, Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia, M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester, B.A., English, State University of New York, "I don't want to achieve immortality through my work. Now it’s your turn. Novels about growing up are popular among teenagers. The URL has been copied to your clipboard, Everyday Grammar: Gerunds and Infinitives. Memorizing the most common verbs that take a gerund, such as advise, avoid, enjoy, finish, practice, quit, and suggest, is helpful. _________________________________________________________________, gerund - n. an English noun formed from a verb by adding -ing, infinitive - n. the basic form of a verb; usually used with to except with modal verbs like should and could and certain other verbs like see and hear, preposition - n. a word or group of words that is used with a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase to show direction, location, or time, or to introduce an object. Sometimes, “but” can also play a role of a preposition. It acts just like a noun. There is one exception. FluentU is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. Some verbs require a gerund and some will require an infinitive. A gerund is the –ing form of a verb that functions the same as a noun. Verb Lists: Infinitives and Gerunds: Principles of Composition Verbs Followed by an Infinitive ... Verbs Followed by an Infinitive She agreed to speak before the game. FluentU helps you learn fast with useful questions and multiple examples. We’ll respond with feedback about your usage. Tip Number 1: you almost always find a gerund after a preposition. Levels of exercise: Elementary Intermediate Advanced Gerund and Infinitive Exercises: Infinitives are possible, but they are very formal and not very common in this position. But we used infinitives to describe them. After a preposition, use a gerund. The infinitive form of a verb appears either as the basic form (with no marking) or with the word “to.” For example, you can say “I might run to the store” or “I like to run.” In this sentence, “to run” is the infinitive. Here, the gerunds (in bold) are part of the sentence subjects (“walking,” “making friends,” “becoming a millionaire”). Here, the gerund “taking” follows the preposition “of.”. Welcome to another episode of Everyday Grammar on VOA Learning English. Answer Key . I want to achieve it through not. Just follow the rule of gerunds after prepositions, and you will get it right most of the time! Thankfully, it should be easy to remember! Adam Brock wrote this story for Learning English. agree aim appear arrange ask attempt be able beg begin care choose condescend: consent continue dare decide deserve detest dislike expect fail Sentence Two: I suggested to go to dinner. When I introduce a gerunds and infinitives activity in class, I’m usually faced with looks of quiet desperation or grim determination. (He remembered the act of send the fax) Compare the verbals in these two sentences: In the first sentence, the gerund crying serves as the direct object. Gerunds are formed by adding “-ing” to the verb: “sleeping,” “drawing,” “swimming.” But they are not the “-ing” verb forms that you see in the present or past continuous tense. Sentence One, with the gerund, is correct. This is true for prepositions that are part of phrasal verbs, too. With practice, you will be able to remember which one is which. Are you confused yet? Which sentence is correct? Now, what if I ask you what you want to do every day? Types of exercise: Multiple Choice , Fill in the word , Select from Drop Down . A gerund is the present participle (-ing) form of the verb. Either a gerund or an infinitive can follow these verbs, but the meaning may change: afford, agree, appear, arrange, ask, care, decide, demand, expect, fail, hope, learn, manage, mean, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, remember, seem, stop, volunteer, wait, want, wish, A noun or pronoun and an infinitive follow these verbs, advise, allow, ask, cause, challenge, command, convince, expect, forbid, force, hire, instruct, invite, order, pay, permit, program, remind, teach, tell, urge, want, warn. You’re not alone. Dancing? I managed … (to study) Understanding how these words function is a crucial step in developing your English skills. For each of the following sentences, decide if the word or phrase in italics is a participle, a gerund, or an infinitive. The code has been copied to your clipboard. Next time you read or listen to a VOA Learning English story, pay attention to use of gerunds and infinitives. “Sleeping” here is part of the verb. (Mary only stopped to get gas. Please check your email for further instructions. Dr. Jill Robbins was the editor. Or maybe you will soon decide to travel the world! The course was detailed enough to widen his knowledge base. It is formal and it is art. An infinitive is to + the base verb (the verb with no ending). For example, “She sleeps” no longer contains the infinitive of the verb “to sleep.” Instead, it has been conjugated into the simple present third person form of the verb “to sleep”: sleeps. An infinitive is a verb form—often preceded by the particle to—that can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. verbs that take an object and an infinitive in this context, 47 English Words You’ll Never Misspell Again, Learn English through Movies and Film: A Complete Guide, 8 Great Tips to Learn English Through Songs and Music, 9 Awesome Channels to Learn English on YouTube, 10 Best 90′s Sitcoms for English Learners, 12 English Podcasts Every English Learner Should Listen To, 20 Essential American Slang Words for English Learners, 20 Essential English Idioms for Sounding Like a Native. *Note: This rules is very helpful, because it is stronger than the “verb + gerund” rule. The next time you’re doing gerunds and infinitives in class, try teaching the rules below—your students will thank you! Even when the gerund or infinitive is the object of a sentence, it is common for a second object follow the gerund or infinitive because of their “verb” meaning. This is only a simple introduction to a complicated grammar topic. Over time, you will begin to hear the right verb combination. Tip Number 2: When you are talking about an activity, you usually use a gerund. Infinitive: You can tell that to dance is an infinitive because "to" precedes the word "dance." When “but” is used as a preposition, it is the same in meaning as “except.”. Hiking (walking)? Now that you know the difference between infinitives and gerunds, let’s introduce the rules that will help you use both correctly. A gerund or infinitive is never the main verb (e.g., I hiking and I to study are incorrect). Gerunds and infinitives confuse even very advanced English learners. It is difficult for English learners to know whether to use a gerund or an infinitive after a verb. Basically, some verbs are followed by gerunds, some verbs are followed by infinitives, and some verbs can be followed by gerunds or infinitives.