In May 2008, Jharkhand became the first in India to introduce free haircuts for poor students. The state is located in eastern India; it borders Bangladesh in the east, Nepal to the northwest, and Bhutan in the north. The Kolkata metro is the country's first underground railway.

Bakhtar Say and Mundal Singh, two landowners, fought against the British East India Company in 1812. The region was part of several ancient pan−Indian empires, including the Mauryans, and the Guptas. [79] The leaf of Munga (Moringa oleifera) and Koinar tree (Bauhinia variegata) used as leafy vegetable or Saag. The important coalfields in the basin are Jharia, Raniganj, West Bokaro, East Bokaro, Ramgarh, South Karanpura and North Karanpura.[9]. [61] The literacy rate of the state was 67.63% with Ranchi district being most educated at 77.13% compared to rural Pakur district being least at 50.17%. [220], Jadavpur University (Focus area—Mobile Computing and Communication and Nano-science), and the University of Calcutta (Modern Biology) are among two of the fifteen universities selected under the "University with Potential for Excellence" scheme. [6] The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh to the northwest, Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south and West Bengal to the east. [15], Coordinates: 22°17′N 88°05′E / 22.283°N 88.083°E / 22.283; 88.083, Damodar River in the lower reaches of the, Sabharwal, L.R., I.F.S., Conservator of Forests, Bihar, Notes as part of Appendix IV to, "The Associated Programme On Flood Management", River bank erosion along the Ganges in Malda and Murshidabad districts, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Damodar_River&oldid=987366689, Articles with Bengali-language sources (bn), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 November 2020, at 15:41.

Rabindrasangeet, songs composed and set to words by Rabindranath Tagore, and Nazrul geeti (by Kazi Nazrul Islam) are popular. [205], Other major festivals of West Bengal include: Poila Baishakh the Bengali new year, Dolyatra or Holi the festival of lights, Poush Parbon, Kali Puja, Nabadwip Shakta Rash, Saraswati Puja, Deepavali, Lakshmi Puja, Janmashtami, Jagaddhatri Puja, Vishwakarma Puja, Bhai Phonta, Rakhi Bandhan, Kalpataru Day, Shivratri, Ganesh Chathurthi, Maghotsav, Kartik Puja, Akshay Tritiya, Raas Yatra, Guru Purnima, Annapurna Puja, Charak Puja, Gajan, Buddha Purnima, Christmas, Eid ul-Fitr, Eid ul-Adha and Muharram.

West Bengal's total fertility rate was 1.6, lower than Bihar's 3.4, which is the highest in the entire country. [157], The literacy rate is 77.08%, higher than the national rate of 74.04%. [159][160] The proportion of people living below the poverty line in 2013 was 19.98%, a decline from 31.8% a decade ago. Jharkhand is situated in eastern part of India and was carved out of the state of Jharkhand in the year 2000. Jharkhand lies in eastern India, formed on November 15, 2000.

Oxford University Press, 1983.

Even now the floods sometimes affect the lower Damodar Valley, but the havoc it wreaked in earlier years is now a matter of history. West Bengal schools are run by the state government or private organisations, including religious institutions. [62] Although the economy was severely damaged during the unrest in the 1970s, the state has managed to revive its economy steadily throughout the years.

The political party or the coalition of political parties having a majority in the Legislative Assembly forms the government. Sweets such as narkol-naru, til-naru, moa and payesh are prepared during festivals such as Lakshmi puja. Images of Jagannath are set upon a chariot and pulled through the streets. [95] Above an elevation of 1,000 metres (3,300 ft), the forest becomes predominantly subtropical. Jharkhand suffers from what is sometimes termed a resource curse[9]: it accounts for more than 40% of the mineral resources of India,[10] but 39.1% of its population is below the poverty line and 19.6% of children under five years of age are malnourished. Ashunta Lakra, sister of Vimal Lakra is the Indian Hockey Captain currently. [46] Calcutta, the headquarters of the East India company, was named the capital of British-held territories in India in 1773. It is the largest stadium in India by seating capacity. [2] Bengalis, consisting of Bengali Hindus, Bengali Muslims, Bengali Christians and a few Bengali Buddhists, comprise the majority of the population. [171] Other notable figures include Kazi Nazrul Islam, whose compositions form the avant-garde genre of Nazrul Sangeet,[172] Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, whose works on contemporary social practices in Bengal are widely acclaimed,[173] and Manik Bandyopadhyay, who is considered one of the leading lights of modern Bengali fiction. It is the most polluted river of India (by 2003). The valley is called “the Ruhr of India”. [104] Some work has focused on combating fluorosis through increased calcium intake by consuming local plants. [84], Major local festival of Jharkhand are Chhath Puja, Durga Puja, Karam, Jitia, Diwali, Sohrai/Bandna, Phagua/Holi, Dussehra, Ram Navami, Sarhul and Mage Porob. [100], Politics in Bengal is dominated by the All India Trinamool Congress, Bharatiya Janata Party, Congress, and the Left Front alliance (led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist) or CPI(M)).

The city of Kolkata undergoes a transformation during Durga Puja. [7] The huge volume of water that flows down the Damodar and its tributaries during the monsoons used to be a fury in the upper reaches of the valley. [104], Each district is governed by a district collector or district magistrate, appointed by either the Indian Administrative Service or the West Bengal Civil Service. West Bengal politics underwent a major change when the Left Front won the 1977 assembly election, defeating the incumbent Indian National Congress. [117][118][119] Netarhat is a hill station in the state. Jharkhand is situated in eastern part of India and was carved out of the state of Jharkhand in the year 2000. The Darjeeling Himalayan Hill region experiences a harsh winter, with occasional snowfall. φ Latitude, λ Longitude (of Map center; move the map to see coordinates): Cooch Behar Palace (Victor Jubilee Palace) was built in 1887 during the reign of Maharaja Nripendra Narayan of Cooch Behar State. In 2017–18, the GSDP growth rate of state was at 10.22%.[13]. It is celebrated with much fanfare in Kolkata as well as in rural Bengal. He was arrested and detained in police station for hours along with many supporters. [12] Today, the economy of West Bengal is the sixth-largest state economy in India with a gross state domestic product (GSDP) of ₹12.54 lakh crore (US$180 billion),[3] and has the country's 23rd-highest GSDP per capita of ₹115,748 (US$1,600). [91], From a phytogeographic viewpoint, the southern part of West Bengal can be divided into two regions: the Gangetic plain and the littoral mangrove forests of the Sundarbans. [54] In 1950 the Princely State of Cooch Behar merged with West Bengal. [158] Data from 2010 to 2014 showed the life expectancy in the state was 70.2 years, higher than the national value of 67.9. Winter (December–January) is mild over the plains with average minimum temperatures of 15 °C (59 °F). [11] For many decades the state underwent political violence and economic stagnation.

[67] Muslims have highest presence in Pakur district and Sahebganj district of Jharkhand forming 35% and 34% of the population due border with West Bengal and Bangladesh.[68][69]. Although some early Sanskrit literature mentions the name Vanga, the region's early history is obscure. Universal suffrage is granted to residents. The legislature, the West Bengal Legislative Assembly, consists of elected members and special office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, who are elected by the members. In contrast, the service sector has grown at a rate higher than the national rate. From the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire. [178][179], A notable music tradition is the Baul music, practised by the Bauls, a sect of mystic minstrels. In Darjeeling, which is above 1,500 metres (4,900 ft), temperate forest trees like oaks, conifers and rhododendrons predominate. A recent survey led by the Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi in collaboration with UNICEF in the northwest districts of Palamau and Garhwa found fluoride levels above the drinking WHO drinking water guidelines. [4], It has a number of tributaries and subtributaries, such as Barakar, Konar, Bokaro, Haharo, Jamunia, Ghari, Guaia, Khadia and Bhera. Simply type in the name of the two places in the text boxes and click the show button! [215] Sir William Jones established the Asiatic Society in 1794 to promote oriental studies. [135], Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport at Dum Dum, Kolkata, is the state's largest airport. Disclaimer | For management and treatment of such TB, Itki TB Sanatorium, Ranchi, established in 1928 has been doing work as a premier institute for clinical and programmatic management of TB. Under this position, is a hierarchy of officials drawn from the Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service, Indian Forest Service and different wings of the state civil services. The best format to use is [City, Country] to enter a location - that is [City(comma)(space)Country]. [3] West Bengal also has the 28th-highest ranking among Indian states in human development index, with the index value being less than that of India. Armed attempts against the British Raj from Bengal reached a climax when news of Subhas Chandra Bose leading the Indian National Army against the British reached Bengal. [31] Under Ashoka, the Maurya Empire of Magadha in the 3rd century BCE extended over nearly all of South Asia, including Afghanistan and parts of Balochistan. [85] West Bengal receives the Bay of Bengal branch of the Indian Ocean monsoon that moves in a southeast to northwest direction. They spearheaded movement for separate state of Jharkhand. The school system comprises various private and public schools. The state has been moving towards the goal of universal elementary education but the target of 100% enrolment and retention of children in schools has not yet been attained.

[232] Private FM stations are available only in cities like Kolkata, Siliguri, and Asansol. There was a provision for limited internal autonomy in the hill area of Assam.