Here in part 1, we introduce gerunds and infinitives and explain the basics of everyday usage. If you’re not sure whether you need to use a present participle or a gerund, imagine swapping the gerund for another simple noun – does the sentence still make grammatical sense? The following guidelines and lists will help you figure out whether a gerund or infinitive is needed. As you read these examples of gerunds, notice the verbs they contain, and notice that every single one of them ends in ing. Gerunds can follow a preposition; infinitives cannot. (See all the gerund and infinitive exercises here) Here's my video on the subject: We use gerunds (verb + ing): After certain verbs - I enjoy singing; After prepositions - I drank a cup of coffee before leaving Te cuento mi experiencia!

The gerund always has the same function as a noun (although it looks like a verb). Page and check your text using a unique Contextual Grammar and Spell Checker. Although the term might sound foreign, the gerund is a common part of speech that most of us use every day, whether we know it or not. The gerund always has the same function as a noun (although it looks like a verb). There are some phrasal verbs that include the word "to" as a preposition for example to look forward to, to take to, to be accustomed to, to get around to, & to be used to. Both gerunds and infinitives can replace a noun as the object of a verb. Subject of a verb. 4 Great Novels that Will Help You Learn English. He was fined for driving over the speed limit. People can often get confused about how to use gerunds correctly because they are so similar to a verb – but by remembering one important fact – that they are nouns, not verbs – you will be able to avoid mistakes! Here, we’ll take an in-depth look at gerunds and provide you with several examples of gerunds so you’ll feel comfortable using them in your writing, and so that you will be able to recognize them when you see them. Gerunds can serve as an object after a preposition: I look forward to helping you paint the house. Infinitives can be made negative by adding "not.". It’s that simple. e.g. When using any verb after a preposition, you must always use it as a gerund, and not in any other form. “Those children will grow up behaving very badly.”, “We have had to put off going on our holiday this year.”. Here in part 1, we introduce gerunds and infinitives and explain the basics of everyday usage. Parts of speech (verbs, nouns, adjectives, …), Conjunctions: general aspects and function, Numbers, numerals and time specifications. Using gerunds with prepositions and phrasal verbs Prepositions are words such as “on”, “at” or “in”, that can be used to link nouns and noun phrases in a sentence. Whenever a verb form ending in –ingis used, it is a gerund functioning as a noun, not a verb. Both gerunds and infinitives can be used as objects of a sentence. Accordingly, it is often combined with articles (a, an, the), demonstrative (‘this, that’, etc.) Gerunds are words that are formed with verbs but act as nouns. A typical grammatical categorisation is that the gerund can have four different forms. On this page you will find the following: The gerund is a noun (which looks like the present participle) that is constructed by nominalisation of the corresponding verb. Gerunds and infinitives are a part of English grammar that many English learners find challenging. To find gerunds in sentences, just look for a verb + ing that is used as a noun. Uninstall instructions, End-User License Agreement & Privacy Policy. However, as subjects or complements, gerunds usually sound more like normal, spoken English, whereas infinitives sound more abstract. Gerunds might sound like a strange term to come across in English grammar, but they describe a very common part of the language. 3. e.g. In compound nouns using the gerund, it is clear that the meaning is that of a noun, not of a continuous verb. Some verbs are followed by gerunds as objects. Infinitives emphasize the possibility or potential for something and sound more philosophical. Gerunds can be made negative by adding "not.". Read on to find out what exactly a gerund is, and how to make sure you’re using them correctly. Compare the following functions it can fulfil: The gerund corresponds precisely to the present participle or the ing-form and is, therefore, formed according to the respective rules. Bill avoided doing his math assignment because the World Series was on. You can also use an infinitive as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence. Catch sight of this example: Here, we see that the word, reading, is a n… Gerunds can act as an object following the verb: Daniel quit smoking a year ago. We use cookies to ensure you get the best experience of our website. Gerunds can appear at the beginning of a sentence when used as a subject: Jogging is a hobby of mine. A present participle, by contrast – plays the role of a verb. A gerund is an instance when a verb is being used in a very particular way – as a noun! If you can put the pronoun "it" after the word "to" and form a meaningful sentence, then the word "to" is a preposition and must be followed by a gerund. Some uses of the gerund are covered on this page. *Read about  Gerund Phrases and learn more! 3. You’ll find gerunds in virtually everything you read, write or hear – and they’re quite easy to use! The good news is that our three-part tutorial gives you twenty gerund and infinitive tips to take you from beginner to pro. List of Verbs Followed by Gerunds, 6. As the object of a sentence, it is more difficult to choose between a gerund or an infinitive.

Italian gerund is the Italian equivalent of English verbs that end in –ing. What are Gerunds? Present participles do not act as nouns. Like all things grammar, gerunds do take a tiny bit of detective work to spot. A gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding "-ing."

1. It is important to recognise that the word "to" is a preposition in these cases because it must be followed by a gerund. Phrasal verbs are composed of a verb + preposition or adverb.

In such situations, gerunds and infinitives are not normally interchangeable. Let’s take a look at some gerunds in action: “I enjoy writing – it’s my favourite hobby.”. In the following sentences, gerunds sound more natural and would be more common in everyday English. A separate page deals with verbs that are followed by the gerund.

The gerund looks exactly the same as a present participle, but it is useful to understand the difference between the two. 2. Whether you use a gerund or an infinitive depends on the main verb in the sentence. They always end in –ing (e.g., “studying,” “walking,” “eating,” “sleeping,”etc). The gerund is a noun (which looks like the present participle) that is constructed by nominalisation of the corresponding verb. For example, with the word "swimming pool" it is a pool for swimming in, it is not a pool that is swimming. 2. List of Verbs Followed by Infinitives. Sign up today! Send us a message. 5 Most Common Myths about Studying English Abroad. 5. 4. Privacy Policy. It is not part of the infinitive form of the verb. By the end of this quick lesson, you’ll have no problem recognizing gerunds when you see them.

Usually, the main verb in the sentence determines whether you use a gerund or an infinitive. Besides being able to spot gerunds, you should be able to tell the difference between a gerund and a present participle. Some verbs are followed by infinitives. The problem here is that present participles also end with the letters ing. Object of a transitive verb.

Some verbs are followed by a pronoun or noun referring to a person, and then an infinitive. You might notice that a gerund takes the same form as the present participle of a verb – but it has a different meaning! My students often get very confused by the use of “being” and “having” as gerunds. There are no exceptions to this rule. Although it looks like a verb, a gerund always follows the same rules as you would with a noun –it can be used as a subject just like any other noun. Remember that gerunds are words that are formed with verbs but act as nouns. The gerund is necessary after the expressions can't help, can't stand, to be worth, & it's no use. In the same way, when using a phrasal verbs, you must also use the gerund. Following a verb (gerund or infinitive) Both gerunds and infinitives can replace a noun as the object of a verb. It can be a little difficult to know when to use gerunds and infinitives. In English, both gerunds and infinitives can be used to talk about the reason why we use or do something.. Let’s begin with an example. Can you touch your toes without bending your knees? All Rights Reserved

Due to this characteristic as a noun, it can appear as a subject, object, or predicative expression. An infinitive is the "to" form of the verb. They’re very easy to spot, since every gerund is a verb with ing tacked to its tail.

Consult the lists below to find out which form to use following which verbs. Gerund Examples. What are Gerunds and How Do You Use Them? Learning to use gerunds and infinitives can feel a bit overwhelming at first. Object of a transitive verbObject of a preposition . or possessive pronouns (‘my, your, his’, etc.). Written by Martine Johnston, International Student Centre. For example, “eat” is changed to “eating”, or “write” is changed to “writing”. Gerunds and infinitives are verb forms that can take the place of a noun in a sentence. A separate page deals with verbs that are followed by the gerund. Let’s go back to the definition of a gerund for a moment.